Joint Programming Initiative

More Years, Better Lives

The Potential and Challenges of Demographic Change

European Union Labour Force Survey (EU LFS)
European Union Labour Force Survey (EU LFS)

Topic
Social Systems and Welfare
Work and Productivity
Education and Learning
Relevance for this Topic
Country Europe
URL
More Topics

Governance

Contact information

Ms. Nicoletta Schweikle-Hilgner (for research contracts)
European Commission, Eurostat – Unit B1
5, rue Alphonse Weicker
2721 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Email: For research contracts: estat-microdata-access(at)ec.europa.eu; For other organisations: estat-entities-assessment(at)ec.europa.eu
Url: epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/.../database

Timeliness, transparency

Data transmission deadlines: Quarterly data: 12 weeks after the reference quarter. Annual results for year N (particularly weights in case of a subsample of yearly variables): together with quarter 4 data in March N+1. LFS data for ad-hoc modules are released after the end of the reference period once data processing and validation is terminated. This is not scheduled in a release calendar.

Type of data


Survey

Type of Study

Cross-section, regular

Data gathering method

Telephone interview (CATI)

Face-to-face interview (CAPI, PAPI)


Four modes of data collection exist for the EU-LFS: personal visits, telephone interviews, web interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Seventeen countries conducted the first wave always or mainly via personal visit, while subsequent waves are completed over the phone, if available. Germany collects data mainly through face-to-face interviews (using CAPI); persons not available for the interviewer or refusing oral interviews are in a few cases interviewed by telephone or, more frequently, fill in self-administered postal questionnaires. Denmark collects data for the core-LFS through telephone interviews (CATI), but for the household subsample, computer assisted web interviews (CAWI) are used. Belgium conducts the interviews face-to-face (CAPI), but in households of retired persons, interviews can be conducted by telephone. Six countries (Luxembourg, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) rely solely on telephone interviews. Italy uses a mixed mode of CAPI-CATI: CAPI mainly for the first wave and CATI mainly for the later waves. Six countries (Bulgaria, Estonia, Ireland, Romania, Croatia and Turkey) collect data using only face-to-face interviews. Among those, Ireland, Estonia and Turkey, use computerised questionnaires (CAPI). Most countries conduct the interview only with computerised questionnaires. Four (Malta, Germany, Estonia and Poland) use both computerised and paper questionnaires and five countries (Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Croatia) rely solely on paper questionnaires.

Type of data


Survey

Type of Study

Cross-section, regular

Data gathering method

Telephone interview (CATI)

Face-to-face interview (CAPI, PAPI)


Four modes of data collection exist for the EU-LFS: personal visits, telephone interviews, web interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Seventeen countries conducted the first wave always or mainly via personal visit, while subsequent waves are completed over the phone, if available. Germany collects data mainly through face-to-face interviews (using CAPI); persons not available for the interviewer or refusing oral interviews are in a few cases interviewed by telephone or, more frequently, fill in self-administered postal questionnaires. Denmark collects data for the core-LFS through telephone interviews (CATI), but for the household subsample, computer assisted web interviews (CAWI) are used. Belgium conducts the interviews face-to-face (CAPI), but in households of retired persons, interviews can be conducted by telephone. Six countries (Luxembourg, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) rely solely on telephone interviews. Italy uses a mixed mode of CAPI-CATI: CAPI mainly for the first wave and CATI mainly for the later waves. Six countries (Bulgaria, Estonia, Ireland, Romania, Croatia and Turkey) collect data using only face-to-face interviews. Among those, Ireland, Estonia and Turkey, use computerised questionnaires (CAPI). Most countries conduct the interview only with computerised questionnaires. Four (Malta, Germany, Estonia and Poland) use both computerised and paper questionnaires and five countries (Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Croatia) rely solely on paper questionnaires.

Type of data


Survey

Type of Study

Cross-section, regular

Data gathering method

Telephone interview (CATI)

Face-to-face interview (CAPI, PAPI)


Four modes of data collection exist for the EU-LFS: personal visits, telephone interviews, web interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Seventeen countries conducted the first wave always or mainly via personal visit, while subsequent waves are completed over the phone, if available. Germany collects data mainly through face-to-face interviews (using CAPI); persons not available for the interviewer or refusing oral interviews are in a few cases interviewed by telephone or, more frequently, fill in self-administered postal questionnaires. Denmark collects data for the core-LFS through telephone interviews (CATI), but for the household subsample, computer assisted web interviews (CAWI) are used. Belgium conducts the interviews face-to-face (CAPI), but in households of retired persons, interviews can be conducted by telephone. Six countries (Luxembourg, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) rely solely on telephone interviews. Italy uses a mixed mode of CAPI-CATI: CAPI mainly for the first wave and CATI mainly for the later waves. Six countries (Bulgaria, Estonia, Ireland, Romania, Croatia and Turkey) collect data using only face-to-face interviews. Among those, Ireland, Estonia and Turkey, use computerised questionnaires (CAPI). Most countries conduct the interview only with computerised questionnaires. Four (Malta, Germany, Estonia and Poland) use both computerised and paper questionnaires and five countries (Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Croatia) rely solely on paper questionnaires.


Access to data


Main indicators derived from the LFS are available online on the Eurostat website. Detailed results fully based on the EU-LFS and that had no adjustments or corrections applied could also be retrieved online. These contain information on the following subjects: Total population, activity and activity rates, employment, employment rates, self-employed, employees, temporary employment, full-time and part-time employment, population in employment having a second job, working time, total unemployment and inactivity. The user can access and extract statistics according to specific dimensions (variables) like sex, age, highest level of education, nationality or economic activity. Through direct queries, customised tabulations of EU-LFS results are available to users in electronic format. Basic downloadable tables and information is available on the Eurostat website. Access to microdata is only provided for research purposes. Individuals cannot be granted access to data.

Conditions of access


Direct access to the anonymised microdata is only provided by means of research contracts. Access is in principle restricted to universities, research institutes, national statistical institutes, central banks inside the EU and EEA countries, as well as to the European Central Bank. Individuals cannot be granted direct access. Beginning in July 2013, all entities requesting access to microdata will have to be first recognised as eligible for access. This will be required only once for all future access requests. The previous research contract will be replaced by a licence (confidentiality undertaking). For other kind of organisations inside the EU/EEA countries and any requests from any organisations outside the EU/EEA, approval for access needs to be requested first from the European Statistical System Committee by written procedure, which takes about 6 months. Access to microdata is provided free of charge.


The procedure takes on average 10 weeks.


Anonymised microdata


XLS, CSV, HTML, SPSS, TSV, PDF, PC-AXIS


Data and documentation are available in English.

Access to data


Main indicators derived from the LFS are available online on the Eurostat website. Detailed results fully based on the EU-LFS and that had no adjustments or corrections applied could also be retrieved online. These contain information on the following subjects: Total population, activity and activity rates, employment, employment rates, self-employed, employees, temporary employment, full-time and part-time employment, population in employment having a second job, working time, total unemployment and inactivity. The user can access and extract statistics according to specific dimensions (variables) like sex, age, highest level of education, nationality or economic activity. Through direct queries, customised tabulations of EU-LFS results are available to users in electronic format. Basic downloadable tables and information is available on the Eurostat website. Access to microdata is only provided for research purposes. Individuals cannot be granted access to data.

Conditions of access


Direct access to the anonymised microdata is only provided by means of research contracts. Access is in principle restricted to universities, research institutes, national statistical institutes, central banks inside the EU and EEA countries, as well as to the European Central Bank. Individuals cannot be granted direct access. Beginning in July 2013, all entities requesting access to microdata will have to be first recognised as eligible for access. This will be required only once for all future access requests. The previous research contract will be replaced by a licence (confidentiality undertaking). For other kind of organisations inside the EU/EEA countries and any requests from any organisations outside the EU/EEA, approval for access needs to be requested first from the European Statistical System Committee by written procedure, which takes about 6 months. Access to microdata is provided free of charge.


The procedure takes on average 10 weeks.


Anonymised microdata


XLS, CSV, HTML, SPSS, TSV, PDF, PC-AXIS


Data and documentation are available in English.

Access to data


Main indicators derived from the LFS are available online on the Eurostat website. Detailed results fully based on the EU-LFS and that had no adjustments or corrections applied could also be retrieved online. These contain information on the following subjects: Total population, activity and activity rates, employment, employment rates, self-employed, employees, temporary employment, full-time and part-time employment, population in employment having a second job, working time, total unemployment and inactivity. The user can access and extract statistics according to specific dimensions (variables) like sex, age, highest level of education, nationality or economic activity. Through direct queries, customised tabulations of EU-LFS results are available to users in electronic format. Basic downloadable tables and information is available on the Eurostat website. Access to microdata is only provided for research purposes. Individuals cannot be granted access to data.

Conditions of access


Direct access to the anonymised microdata is only provided by means of research contracts. Access is in principle restricted to universities, research institutes, national statistical institutes, central banks inside the EU and EEA countries, as well as to the European Central Bank. Individuals cannot be granted direct access. Beginning in July 2013, all entities requesting access to microdata will have to be first recognised as eligible for access. This will be required only once for all future access requests. The previous research contract will be replaced by a licence (confidentiality undertaking). For other kind of organisations inside the EU/EEA countries and any requests from any organisations outside the EU/EEA, approval for access needs to be requested first from the European Statistical System Committee by written procedure, which takes about 6 months. Access to microdata is provided free of charge.


The procedure takes on average 10 weeks.


Anonymised microdata


XLS, CSV, HTML, SPSS, TSV, PDF, PC-AXIS


Data and documentation are available in English.


Coverage


Since 2005, all Member States of the EU conduct a continuous survey and provide quarterly results. In 2010, Switzerland was the last participating country which moved to a continuous survey. Thus, since 2010 all ESS countries provide quarterly and annual data. Anonymised microdata is available from 1983 - 2011 Sample size: All definitions apply to persons aged 15 years and over living in private households. Persons carrying out obligatory military or community service are not included in the target group of the survey, which is also the case for persons in institutions/collective households. Sampling rates vary between 0.2 and 3.3% (around 1.5 million people per quarter).


The first EU-LFS was organised in the six original Member States in 1960 by Eurostat. Currently, microdata files are available from 1983.


All countries, except Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta and Iceland, stratify the sample frame prior to the sampling. All countries but Denmark use the region, either at NUTS 2, NUTS 3, NUTS 4 level or nationally defined areas, as stratification variable. The degree of urbanisation (France, Spain, Ireland, Cyprus, Latvia, Poland, Slovenia, Bulgaria) or the classification in “urban / rural area” (Romania) is also a common stratification variable. Other stratification variables include, for example, register status of individuals in employment/unemployment registers (Denmark), population of town/community (Greece), and auxiliary information about the characteristics (size, type) of the primary sampling units (Spain, France, Italy, Hungary).


The sampling designs in the LFS are chosen on a country basis. Most of the National Statistical Institutes employ multi-staged stratified random sample design, especially those that do not have central population registers available. Regardless of the sampling method or which age groups are interviewed, the data records at Eurostat are representative of the population aged 15-74 (16-74 in Iceland, Norway, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain). Population registers and the latest Population Census or list of addresses used in that Census are the two main sources for the sampling frame. Other sources include lists of addresses from, e.g., the Postal Authorities or Utility databases. Belgium, Estonia, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Austria, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, and Slovenia use the Population Registers as the sole basis, while the Netherlands complete this information with postal data, Denmark with other registers, Latvia and Spain with Census information. Germany grounds the sample frame on the 1987 Census in the western part and on the Central Population Register, based on the 1981 Census, in the east, both updated by the Register of new dwellings.


The EU-LFS currently covers thirty-three countries (participating countries) providing Eurostat with data from national labour force surveys: the 27 Member States of the European Union, three EFTA countries (Iceland, which at the same time is a candidate country, Norway and Switzerland), and three acceding and candidate countries, i.e. Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. The EU-LFS is conducted by the national statistical institutes in accordance with Council Regulation (EEC) No. 577/98 of 9 March 1998 and the data are centrally processed by Eurostat. The EU-LFS is designed to give accurate quarterly information at national level and accurate annual information at NUTS 2 regional level. The LFS microdata for scientific purposes contain data for all 27 Member States and in addition Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data for individual countries are available depending on their accession date. Subject to data availability with the exception of Germany (anonymised microdata is provided from 2002 onwards only) and Malta (from 2009 onwards only).


15+ except those living in collective or institutional households (demographic data are gathered for all age groups, questions relating to labour market status are restricted to persons in the age group of 15 years or older). However, in several countries members of collective households are also sampled, either directly (register based sampling frames) or indirectly through their relationship with the sampled household. For Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, population data are not provided for the age-groups outside the scope of labour market questions.


The European Union Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) provides population estimates for the main labour market characteristics, such as employment, unemployment, inactivity, hours of work, occupation, economic activity and other labour related variables, as well as important socio-demographic characteristics, such as sex, age, education, household characteristics and regions of residence. While demographic data are gathered for populations of all ages, questions relating to labour market status are restricted to persons in the age group 15 years or older. The LFS ad-hoc module of 2006 on the transition from work to retirement complements the main annual LFS survey of 2006 with a set of 11 questions asked only to respondents aged 50-69 years old (who either worked or didn't work, and worked at least up to the age of 50). The module aims primarily at understanding how the transition at the end of the career towards full retirement is expected to take place or takes place. In that effort, it collects specific questions on the plans for transitions/past transitions towards full retirement and plans for exit from work. The second aim of this ad-hoc module is to know which factors would be at play in determining the exit from work, and which factors could make the persons postpone their exit from work (better health, flexible working time, financial incentives, and opportunities for lifelong learning).


• Auer, P., & Fortuny, M. "Ageing of the labour force in OECD countries: Economic and social consequences". International Labour Office, Geneva, 2000. • Eurostat. “Quality report of the European Union Labour Force Survey 2011”. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2013. • Eurostat. “Transition from work into retirement”. Eurostat Methodologies and Working Papers, KS-RA-08-012-EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (2008). • Garrouste, C., & Paccagnella, O. "Shall I stay or shall I go?: Late graduation and retirement decision”. Joint Research Centre Scientific and Technical Reports 67814, Publications Office of the European Union (2012).

Coverage


Since 2005, all Member States of the EU conduct a continuous survey and provide quarterly results. In 2010, Switzerland was the last participating country which moved to a continuous survey. Thus, since 2010 all ESS countries provide quarterly and annual data. Anonymised microdata is available from 1983 - 2011 Sample size: All definitions apply to persons aged 15 years and over living in private households. Persons carrying out obligatory military or community service are not included in the target group of the survey, which is also the case for persons in institutions/collective households. Sampling rates vary between 0.2 and 3.3% (around 1.5 million people per quarter).


The first EU-LFS was organised in the six original Member States in 1960 by Eurostat. Currently, microdata files are available from 1983.


All countries, except Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta and Iceland, stratify the sample frame prior to the sampling. All countries but Denmark use the region, either at NUTS 2, NUTS 3, NUTS 4 level or nationally defined areas, as stratification variable. The degree of urbanization (France, Spain, Ireland, Cyprus, Latvia, Poland, Slovenia, Bulgaria) or the classification in “urban / rural area” (Romania) is also a common stratification variable. Other stratification variables include, for example, register status of individuals in employment/unemployment registers (Denmark), population of town/community (Greece), and auxiliary information about the characteristics (size, type) of the primary sampling units (Spain, France, Italy, Hungary).


The sampling designs in the LFS are chosen on a country basis. Most of the National Statistical Institutes employ multi-staged stratified random sample design, especially those that do not have central population registers available. Regardless of the sampling method or which age groups are interviewed, the data records at Eurostat are representative of the population aged 15-74 (16-74 in Iceland, Norway, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain). Population registers and the latest Population Census or list of addresses used in that Census are the two main sources for the sampling frame. Other sources include lists of addresses from, e.g., the Postal Authorities or Utility databases. Belgium, Estonia, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Austria, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, and Slovenia use the Population Registers as the sole basis, while the Netherlands complete this information with postal data, Denmark with other registers, Latvia and Spain with Census information. Germany grounds the sample frame on the 1987 Census in the western part and on the Central Population Register, based on the 1981 Census, in the east, both updated by the Register of new dwellings.


The EU-LFS currently covers thirty-three countries (participating countries) providing Eurostat with data from national labour force surveys: the 27 Member States of the European Union, three EFTA countries (Iceland, which at the same time is a candidate country, Norway and Switzerland), and three acceding and candidate countries, i.e. Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. The EU-LFS is conducted by the national statistical institutes in accordance with Council Regulation (EEC) No. 577/98 of 9 March 1998 and the data are centrally processed by Eurostat. The EU-LFS is designed to give accurate quarterly information at national level and accurate annual information at NUTS 2 regional level. The LFS microdata for scientific purposes contain data for all 27 Member States and in addition Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data for individual countries are available depending on their accession date. Subject to data availability with the exception of Germany (anonymised microdata is provided from 2002 onwards only) and Malta (from 2009 onwards only).


15+ except those living in collective or institutional households (demographic data are gathered for all age groups, questions relating to labour market status are restricted to persons in the age group of 15 years or older). However, in several countries members of collective households are also sampled, either directly (register based sampling frames) or indirectly through their relationship with the sampled household. For Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, population data are not provided for the age-groups outside the scope of labour market questions.


The European Union Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) provides population estimates for the main labour market characteristics, such as employment, unemployment, inactivity, hours of work, occupation, economic activity and other labour related variables, as well as important socio-demographic characteristics, such as sex, age, education, household characteristics and regions of residence. While demographic data are gathered for populations of all ages, questions relating to labour market status are restricted to persons in the age group 15 years or older. The EU-LFS is a key data source for the analysis of the situation and trends in the labour market. The survey provides quarterly and annual results on labour participation of people aged 15 and over, as well as on persons outside the labour force. By dividing the resident population at working age into three mutually exclusive and exhaustive groups (employed, unemployed, and economically inactive), the survey collects different variables depending on the status at the time of the survey. For the inactive population, search for employment, methods to find work, and previous work experience are gathered. For employed persons, the survey collects information on the employment characteristics of their main job, such as the principle activities, professional status, and working conditions. Finally, for unemployed persons, the duration of the unemployment status, the search for employment, methods to find work, as well as previous work experience are collected.


• Auer, P., & Fortuny, M. "Ageing of the labour force in OECD countries: Economic and social consequences". International Labour Office, Geneva, 2000. • Eurostat. “Quality report of the European Union Labour Force Survey 2011”. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2013. • Eurostat. “Transition from work into retirement”. Eurostat Methodologies and Working Papers, KS-RA-08-012-EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (2008). • Garrouste, C., & Paccagnella, O. "Shall I stay or shall I go?: Late graduation and retirement decision”. Joint Research Centre Scientific and Technical Reports 67814, Publications Office of the European Union (2012).

Coverage


Since 2005, all Member States of the EU conduct a continuous survey and provide quarterly results. In 2010, Switzerland was the last participating country which moved to a continuous survey. Thus, since 2010 all ESS countries provide quarterly and annual data. Anonymised microdata is available from 1983 - 2011 Sample size: All definitions apply to persons aged 15 years and over living in private households. Persons carrying out obligatory military or community service are not included in the target group of the survey, which is also the case for persons in institutions/collective households. Sampling rates vary between 0.2 and 3.3% (around 1.5 million people per quarter).


The first EU-LFS was organised in the six original Member States in 1960 by Eurostat. Currently, microdata files are available from 1983.


All countries, except Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta and Iceland, stratify the sample frame prior to the sampling. All countries but Denmark use the region, either at NUTS 2, NUTS 3, NUTS 4 level or nationally defined areas, as stratification variable. The degree of urbanization (France, Spain, Ireland, Cyprus, Latvia, Poland, Slovenia, Bulgaria) or the classification in “urban / rural area” (Romania) is also a common stratification variable. Other stratification variables include, for example, register status of individuals in employment/unemployment registers (Denmark), population of town/community (Greece), and auxiliary information about the characteristics (size, type) of the primary sampling units (Spain, France, Italy, Hungary).


The sampling designs in the LFS are chosen on a country basis. Most of the National Statistical Institutes employ multi-staged stratified random sample design, especially those that do not have central population registers available. Regardless of the sampling method or which age groups are interviewed, the data records at Eurostat are representative of the population aged 15-74 (16-74 in Iceland, Norway, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain). Population registers and the latest Population Census or list of addresses used in that Census are the two main sources for the sampling frame. Other sources include lists of addresses from, e.g., the Postal Authorities or Utility databases. Belgium, Estonia, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Austria, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, and Slovenia use the Population Registers as the sole basis, while the Netherlands complete this information with postal data, Denmark with other registers, Latvia and Spain with Census information. Germany grounds the sample frame on the 1987 Census in the western part and on the Central Population Register, based on the 1981 Census, in the east, both updated by the Register of new dwellings.


The EU-LFS currently covers thirty-three countries (participating countries) providing Eurostat with data from national labour force surveys: the 27 Member States of the European Union, three EFTA countries (Iceland, which at the same time is a candidate country, Norway and Switzerland), and three acceding and candidate countries, i.e. Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. The EU-LFS is conducted by the national statistical institutes in accordance with Council Regulation (EEC) No. 577/98 of 9 March 1998 and the data are centrally processed by Eurostat. The EU-LFS is designed to give accurate quarterly information at national level and accurate annual information at NUTS 2 regional level. The LFS microdata for scientific purposes contain data for all 27 Member States and in addition Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data for individual countries are available depending on their accession date. Subject to data availability with the exception of Germany (anonymised microdata is provided from 2002 onwards only) and Malta (from 2009 onwards only).


15+ except those living in collective or institutional households (demographic data are gathered for all age groups, questions relating to labour market status are restricted to persons in the age group of 15 years or older). However, in several countries members of collective households are also sampled, either directly (register based sampling frames) or indirectly through their relationship with the sampled household. For Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, population data are not provided for the age-groups outside the scope of labour market questions.


The European Union Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) provides population estimates for the main labour market characteristics, such as employment, unemployment, inactivity, hours of work, occupation, as well as economic activity and other labour related variables, as well as important socio-demographic characteristics, such as sex, age, education, household characteristics and regions of residence. While demographic data are gathered for populations of all ages, questions relating to labour market status are restricted to persons in the age group 15 years or older. The Labour Force Survey (LFS) provides annual evolutions for a limited set of indicators in education and lifelong learning. The reference period for the participation in education and training activities is the four weeks prior to the interview. The analysis of the occupational employment patterns could allow for the study of the required skills and qualifications in the labour market. The ad-hoc module on Lifelong Learning collected in 2003 provides insights on the educational attainment and training (formal and informal). This also considers activities that took place during paid working hours. Most of the variables are focused on the population 15+. Insights of the effect of lifelong learning on future plans for retirement are provided by the 2006 ad-hoc module.


• Auer, P., & Fortuny, M. "Ageing of the labour force in OECD countries: Economic and social consequences". International Labour Office, Geneva, 2000. • Eurostat. “Quality report of the European Union Labour Force Survey 2011”. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2013. • Eurostat. “Transition from work into retirement”. Eurostat Methodologies and Working Papers, KS-RA-08-012-EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (2008). • Garrouste, C., & Paccagnella, O. "Shall I stay or shall I go?: Late graduation and retirement decision”. Joint Research Centre Scientific and Technical Reports 67814, Publications Office of the European Union (2012).


Linkage


General aggregation and anonymisation criteria agreed to by Eurostat and the NSIs of the Member States: Age: 5-year groups Nationality/country of birth: Up to 15 categories since 2009 NACE: 1 digit ISCO: 3 digits ISCED 97


Anonymised LFS microdata do not yet contain the information which would allow tracking people across waves. Household numbers are randomised per dataset. EU-LFS microdata, as received by Eurostat from the national statistical institutes, does not contain any administrative information that would allow direct identification.

Linkage


General aggregation and anonymisation criteria agreed to by Eurostat and the NSIs of the Member States: Age: 5-year groups Nationality/country of birth: Up to 15 categories since 2009 NACE: 1 digit ISCO: 3 digits ISCED 97


Anonymised LFS microdata do not yet contain the information which would allow tracking people across waves. Household numbers are randomised per dataset. EU-LFS microdata, as received by Eurostat from the national statistical institutes, does not contain any administrative information that would allow direct identification.

Linkage


General aggregation and anonymisation criteria agreed to by Eurostat and the NSIs of the Member States: Age: 5-year groups Nationality/country of birth: Up to 15 categories since 2009 NACE: 1 digit ISCO: 3 digits ISCED 97


Anonymised LFS microdata do not yet contain the information which would allow tracking people across waves. Household numbers are randomised per dataset. EU-LFS microdata, as received by Eurostat from the national statistical institutes, does not contain any administrative information that would allow direct identification.


Data quality


There are no estimates available on the rate of processing errors in the EU-LFS.


The EU-LFS uses output harmonisation. This means that the EU issues standards for the output of the LFS in the Member States, but those standards do not impose a single way of designing or conducting the survey. The standards were established in the EU-LFS Regulation 577/1998. Based on the Regulation 577/98, most participating countries changed their labour force surveys into continuous surveys in the period 1998 to 2004. Since 2010, all countries conduct the LFS as a continuous survey, except Turkey. Until 1997, EU-LFS data was mainly collected on a yearly basis, usually in the spring of a reference year. Between 1998 and 2005, the transition to a quarterly continuous survey took place. In 2006, the structure of the LFS changed significantly to reduce the burden on respondents; since then, all variables have to be collected on a yearly basis (structural variables), but only a selection of them on a quarterly basis. To comply with the new structure, LFS data are basically divided into 2 databases: • Quarterly datasets containing only the quarterly variables (as defined in regulations 430/2005 and 377/2008) • Yearly datasets containing all variables of the core LFS survey, the quarterly and the structural ones (cp. the regulations mentioned above) Due to methodological changes, from 2011 onwards the results for Portugal are not comparable with the results for the previous series. Education and training Before 1998, education and training was related only to the activities relevant for the current or future possible job of the respondent. At this time, the information collected in the LFS relates to all education and training, whether relevant to the respondent's current or possible future job or not. It includes formal and non-formal education and training, which means in general activities in the school/university systems, but also courses, seminars workshops, etc. outside the formal education, regardless of their topic.


To ensure the comparability of the statistical results across countries and along time the EU-LFS: • uses the same concepts and definitions • follows International Labour Organization guidelines • uses common classifications (NACE, ISCO, ISCED, NUTS) • records the same set of characteristics in each country

Data quality


There are no estimates available on the rate of processing errors in the EU-LFS.


The EU-LFS uses output harmonisation. This means that the EU issues standards for the output of the LFS in the Member States, but those standards do not impose a single way of designing or conducting the survey. The standards were established in the EU-LFS Regulation 577/1998. Based on the Regulation 577/98, most participating countries changed their labour force surveys into continuous surveys in the period 1998 to 2004. Since 2010, all countries conduct the LFS as a continuous survey, except Turkey. Until 1997, EU-LFS data was mainly collected on a yearly basis, usually in the spring of a reference year. Between 1998 and 2005, the transition to a quarterly continuous survey took place. In 2006, the structure of the LFS changed significantly to reduce the burden on respondents; since then, all variables have to be collected on a yearly basis (structural variables), but only a selection of them on a quarterly basis. To comply with the new structure, LFS data are basically divided into 2 databases: • Quarterly datasets containing only the quarterly variables (as defined in regulations 430/2005 and 377/2008) • Yearly datasets containing all variables of the core LFS survey, the quarterly and the structural ones (cp. the regulations mentioned above) Due to methodological changes, from 2011 onwards the results for Portugal are not comparable with the results for the previous series. Before 1998, education and training was related only to the activities relevant for the current or future possible job of the respondent. At this time, the information collected in the LFS relates to all education and training, whether relevant to the respondent's current or possible future job or not. It includes formal and non-formal education and training, which means in general activities in the school/university systems, but also courses, seminars workshops, etc. outside the formal education, regardless of their topic.


To ensure the comparability of the statistical results across countries and along time the EU-LFS • uses the same concepts and definitions • follows International Labour Organization guidelines • uses common classifications (NACE, ISCO, ISCED, NUTS) • records the same set of characteristics in each country

Data quality


There are no estimates available on the rate of processing errors in the EU-LFS.


The EU-LFS uses output harmonisation. This means that the EU issues standards for the output of the LFS in the Member States, but those standards do not impose a single way of designing or conducting the survey. The standards were established in the EU-LFS Regulation 577/1998. Based on the Regulation 577/98, most participating countries changed their labour force surveys into continuous surveys in the period 1998 to 2004. Since 2010, all countries conduct the LFS as a continuous survey, except Turkey. Until 1997, EU-LFS data was mainly collected on a yearly basis, usually in the spring of a reference year. Between 1998 and 2005, the transition to a quarterly continuous survey took place. In 2006, the structure of the LFS changed significantly to reduce the burden on respondents; since then, all variables have to be collected on a yearly basis (structural variables), but only a selection of them on a quarterly basis. To comply with the new structure, LFS data are basically divided into 2 databases: • Quarterly datasets containing only the quarterly variables (as defined in regulations 430/2005 and 377/2008) • Yearly datasets containing all variables of the core LFS survey, the quarterly and the structural ones (cp. the regulations mentioned above) Due to methodological changes, from 2011 onwards the results for Portugal are not comparable with the results for the previous series. Before 1998, education and training was related only to the activities relevant for the current or future possible job of the respondent. At this time, the information collected in the LFS relates to all education and training, whether relevant to the respondent's current or possible future job or not. It includes formal and non-formal education and training, which means in general activities in the school/university systems, but also courses, seminars workshops, etc. outside the formal education, regardless of their topic.


To ensure the comparability of the statistical results across countries and along time the EU-LFS • uses the same concepts and definitions • follows International Labour Organization guidelines • uses common classifications (NACE, ISCO, ISCED, NUTS) • records the same set of characteristics in each country


Applicability


The EU-LFS represents a key source for the analysis of the labour market and socio-economic indicators. One of the main advantages of this data source is the large sample sizes, being the largest European household sample survey, allowing the study of subgroups. Nevertheless, the anonymisation procedure of the microdata could result in limitations for detailed analysis by economic sector and/or occupation. The more standardised sets of questions and systems of classification adopted for the collection of EU-LFS data, allows for the comparative occupational patterns across countries, as well as the study of gender differences and the interactions by economic sector and occupation. In terms of comparability, there are still differences regarding the information that can be retrieved from EU-LFS datasets and the national statistical institutes. This could result in different estimates of employment or different coding for qualifications between the EU-LFS and the National Accounts Systems. The Module on Transitions from Work into Retirement allows for the analysis of the planned age of retirement of senior workers aged 50 or above, rather than the effective age of retirement. Therefore, it allows for the cross-national analysis of the expected retirement age compared to the statutory retirement ages. One of the limitations is the required knowledge for the analysis of the module given the complex national legislation behind the issue of retirement when data was collected. A second module on Transitions from Work into Retirement was conducted during 2012, but results, quality information and additional resources are not yet available. Once available, the joint analysis of the data would shed some light on the effects of the recent reforms in pension and retirement systems across Europe. A second ad-hoc module on transitions from work into retirement was conducted in 2012, but results are not yet available.

Applicability


The EU-LFS represents a key source for the analysis of the labour market and socio-economic indicators. One of the main advantages of this data source is the large sample sizes, being the largest European household sample survey, allowing the study of subgroups. Nevertheless, the anonymisation procedure of the microdata could result in limitations for detailed analysis by economic sector and/or occupation. The more standardised sets of questions and systems of classification adopted for the collection of EU-LFS data, allows for the comparative occupational patterns across countries, as well as the study of gender differences and the interactions by economic sector and occupation. In terms of comparability, there are still differences regarding the information that can be retrieved from EU-LFS datasets and the national statistical institutes. This could result in different estimates of employment or different coding for qualifications between the EU-LFS and the National Accounts Systems. The Module on Transitions from Work into Retirement allows for the analysis of the planned age of retirement of senior workers aged 50 or above, rather than the effective age of retirement. Therefore, it allows for the cross-national analysis of the expected retirement age compared to the statutory retirement ages. One of the limitations is the required knowledge for the analysis of the module given the complex national legislation behind the issue of retirement when data was collected. A second module on Transitions from Work into Retirement was conducted during 2012, but results, quality information and additional resources are not yet available. Once available, the joint analysis of the data would shed some light on the effects of the recent reforms in pension and retirement systems across Europe. A second ad-hoc module on transitions from work into retirement was conducted in 2012, but results are not yet available.

Applicability


The EU-LFS represents a key source for the analysis of the labour market and socio-economic indicators. One of the main advantages of this data source is the large sample sizes, being the largest European household sample survey, allowing the study of subgroups. Nevertheless, the anonymisation procedure of the microdata could result in limitations for detailed analysis by economic sector and/or occupation. The more standardised sets of questions and systems of classification adopted for the collection of EU-LFS data, allows for the comparative occupational patterns across countries, as well as the study of gender differences and the interactions by economic sector and occupation. In terms of comparability, there are still differences regarding the information that can be retrieved from EU-LFS datasets and the national statistical institutes. This could result in different estimates of employment or different coding for qualifications between the EU-LFS and the National Accounts Systems. The EU-LFS allows for the study of the educational background and skill use of the working-age population. This is a useful instrument for the study of lifelong learning, participation in job-related training, as well as skill acquisition of the population 50+. Moreover, the analysis of ad-hoc modules provides insights on the effect of lifelong learning in retirement plans. In terms of quality, the comparability among countries could be affected due to the transition to harmonised concepts. For some, information retrieved from the LFS is most commonly understood as a measure of the involvement of the population in any learning activity in a given year.


  • The information about this dataset was compiled by the author:
  • Diana Lopez-Falcon
  • (see Partners)