Joint Programming Initiative

More Years, Better Lives

The Potential and Challenges of Demographic Change

The Swedish Level-of-Living Survey (LNU)
Levnadsnivåundersökningen (LNU)

Topic
Health and Performance
Work and Productivity
Relevance for this Topic
Country Sweden
URL
More Topics

Governance

Contact information

Janne Jonsson and Michael Tåhlin
Institute of social research, University of Stockholm
106 91 Stockholm
Sweden
Phone: +468-162000
Fax: +46 8 154670
Email: Janne.jonsson(at)sofi.su.se; Michael.tahlin(at)sofi.su.se
Url: http://snd.gu.se/en/catalogue/study/389

Timeliness, transparency

To be discussed with principal investigator.

Type of data


Registry + Survey

Type of Study

Longitude survey: long-term study of random or different samples

Data gathering method

Face-to-face interview (CAPI, PAPI)

Registries

Type of data


Registry + Survey

Type of Study

Longitude survey: long-term study of random or different samples

Data gathering method

Face-to-face interview (CAPI, PAPI)

Registries


Access to data


Downloaded files/DVD etc.

Conditions of access


Available for the scientific community in line with Swedish laws and agreement with Statistics Sweden (agreements with principal investigator).


Depends of if agreement is made/no regular access


Primarily anonymised microdata, aggregated tables, etc.


Dataset is compatible to many applications; Excel, SAS, SPSS, STATA, Text, etc.


Data is available in Swedish with English terms.

Access to data


Downloaded files/DVD etc.

Conditions of access


Available for the scientific community in line with Swedish laws and agreement with Statistics Sweden (agreements with principal investigator).


Depends of if agreement is made/no regular access


Primarily anonymised microdata, aggregated tables, etc.


Dataset is compatible to many applications; Excel, SAS, SPSS, STATA, Text, etc.


Data is available in Swedish with English terms.


Coverage


The Swedish Level-of-Living survey is one of the longest running longitudinal social science surveys in the world. It was first conducted in 1968. Thereafter, it has been replicated in 1974, 1981, 1991, 2000 and 2010. The original basis for LNU was a random sample of 1/1000 of the Swedish population between 15 and 75 years of age. In 1991, the lower age limit was raised to 18 years.


1968


No stratification


Combination of Registry, Random sample, Official Statistics


The whole country


15-75


The respondents are asked questions about their living conditions in several areas. LNU uses a multidimensional approach, covering individuals’ command over resources in terms of family and social relations, material living conditions (income and wealth), health, education, working conditions, political life, leisure time activities, housing conditions, etc. The same respondents have been interviewed again at later waves. In addition to the interview data, register information has been added, mainly in order to calculate household income. Starting in 2000, children age 10-18 living in the same household as the main respondent are interviewed about their living conditions in a broad sense, via an audio-questionnaire. Information from co-residential partners/spouses is also collected.


• Bygren, M. (1995) Reliabiliteten i levnadsnivåundersökningen 1991. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-058-5. • Erikson, R. (1993) Descriptions of inequality: The Swedish approach to welfare research. In M.C. Nussbaum, & A. Sen, (eds.). The quality of life. Oxford: Clarendon Press. • Erikson, R., & Uusitalo, H. (1987) The Scandinavian approach to welfare research. In R. Erikson, E.J. Hansen, S. Ringen, & H. Uusitalo, (eds.). The Scandinavian model: Welfare states and welfare research. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. • Erikson, R., & Åberg, R. (eds.) (1987) Welfare in Transition. A Survey on Living Conditions in Sweden 1968-1981. Oxford: Clarendon Press. • Erikson, R., & Åberg, R. (red.) (1984) Välfärd i förändring. Levnadsvillkor i Sverige 1968-1981. Stockholm: Prisma. ISBN: 91-518-1657-1. • Eriksson, R., Fritzell, J., & Jonsson, J. O. (1992) Questionnaire. Stockholm: Swedish institute for social research. ISBN: 91-7604-049-6. • Fritzell, J., & Lundberg, O. (1993) Ett förlorat eller förlovat årtionde?: välfärdsutvecklingen mellan 1981 och 1991. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-052-6. • Fritzell, J., & Lundberg, O. (eds.) (1994) Vardagens villkor. Levnadsförhållanden i Sverige under tre decennier. Stockholm: Brombergs förlag. ISBN: 9176086364. • Institutet för social forskning (1981) Instruktions- och övningsformulär. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research. • Institutet för social forskning (1984) Variabler och koder för LNU 81. Stockholm : Swedish institute for social research. ISBN: 91-7604-007-0. • Institutet för social forskning (1987) Bilder av välfärden: levnadsförhållanden i Sverige 1968-1981. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7540-047-2. • Institutet för social forskning (1992) Instruktions- och övningsformulär. Stockholm : Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-048-8. • Institutet för social forskning (1998) Kodbok för levnadsnivåundersökningen 1991. Stockholm: Swedish institute for social research. • Johansson, S. (1970) Om levnadsnivåundersökningen. Stockholm: Allmänna förlaget. Libris • Johansson, S. (1973) The level of living survey: A presentation. Acta Sociologica 16: 211-219. • Johansson, S. (1979) Mot en teori för social rapportering. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 99-0169631-3. Libris • Tåhlin, M. (1990) Politics, dynamics and individualism: The Swedish approach to level of living research. Social Indicators Research, 22. • Vuksanovic, M. (1979) Kodbok för 1974 års levnadsnivåundersökning : dokumentation av ett dataregister för välfärdsforskning. Stockholm : Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-005-4. • Jonsson, Jan O. and Colin Mills (eds.): Cradle to Grave. Life-Course Change in Modern Sweden. London: Routledge (special chapter on LNU-data in English) • Bygren, Magnus, Michael Gähler, Magnus Nermo (eds 2004.), Familj och arbete – Vardagsliv i förändring. Stockholm: SNS. • Jonsson, Jan O. and Viveca Östberg, with Marie Evertsson and Sara Brolin Låftman. 2001: Barns och ungdomars välfärd. SOU 2001:55. Stockholm: Fritzes. • Jonsson, Jan O. and Viveca Östberg. (2010): “Studying Young People’s Level of Living: The Swedish Child-LNU.” Child Indicators Research 3:47-64 If you publish something on this study, please contact snd@snd.gu.se with the citation.

Coverage


The Swedish Level-of-Living survey is one of the longest running longitudinal social science surveys in the world. It was first conducted in 1968. Thereafter, it has been replicated in 1974, 1981, 1991, 2000 and 2010. The original basis for LNU was a random sample of 1/1000 of the Swedish population between 15 and 75 years of age. In 1991, the lower age limit was raised to 18 years.


1968


No stratification


Combination of Registry, Random sample, Official Statistics


The whole country


15-75


The respondents are asked questions about their living conditions in several areas. LNU uses a multidimensional approach, covering individuals’ command over resources in terms of family and social relations, material living conditions (income and wealth), health, education, working conditions, political life, leisure time activities, housing conditions, etc. The same respondents have been interviewed again at later waves. In addition to the interview data, register information has been added, mainly in order to calculate household income. Starting in 2000, children age 10-18 living in the same household as the main respondent are interviewed about their living conditions in a broad sense, via an audio-questionnaire. Information from co-residential partners/spouses is also collected.


• Bygren, M. (1995) Reliabiliteten i levnadsnivåundersökningen 1991. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-058-5. • Erikson, R. (1993) Descriptions of inequality: The Swedish approach to welfare research. In M.C. Nussbaum, & A. Sen, (eds.). The quality of life. Oxford: Clarendon Press. • Erikson, R., & Uusitalo, H. (1987) The Scandinavian approach to welfare research. In R. Erikson, E.J. Hansen, S. Ringen, & H. Uusitalo, (eds.). The Scandinavian model: Welfare states and welfare research. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. • Erikson, R., & Åberg, R. (eds.) (1987) Welfare in Transition. A Survey on Living Conditions in Sweden 1968-1981. Oxford: Clarendon Press. • Erikson, R., & Åberg, R. (red.) (1984) Välfärd i förändring. Levnadsvillkor i Sverige 1968-1981. Stockholm: Prisma. ISBN: 91-518-1657-1. • Eriksson, R., Fritzell, J., & Jonsson, J. O. (1992) Questionnaire. Stockholm: Swedish institute for social research. ISBN: 91-7604-049-6. • Fritzell, J., & Lundberg, O. (1993) Ett förlorat eller förlovat årtionde?: välfärdsutvecklingen mellan 1981 och 1991. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-052-6. • Fritzell, J., & Lundberg, O. (eds.) (1994) Vardagens villkor. Levnadsförhållanden i Sverige under tre decennier. Stockholm: Brombergs förlag. ISBN: 9176086364. • Institutet för social forskning (1981) Instruktions- och övningsformulär. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research. • Institutet för social forskning (1984) Variabler och koder för LNU 81. Stockholm : Swedish institute for social research. ISBN: 91-7604-007-0. • Institutet för social forskning (1987) Bilder av välfärden: levnadsförhållanden i Sverige 1968-1981. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7540-047-2. • Institutet för social forskning (1992) Instruktions- och övningsformulär. Stockholm : Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-048-8. • Institutet för social forskning (1998) Kodbok för levnadsnivåundersökningen 1991. Stockholm: Swedish institute for social research. • Johansson, S. (1970) Om levnadsnivåundersökningen. Stockholm: Allmänna förlaget. Libris • Johansson, S. (1973) The level of living survey: A presentation. Acta Sociologica 16: 211-219. • Johansson, S. (1979) Mot en teori för social rapportering. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 99-0169631-3. Libris • Tåhlin, M. (1990) Politics, dynamics and individualism: The Swedish approach to level of living research. Social Indicators Research, 22. • Vuksanovic, M. (1979) Kodbok för 1974 års levnadsnivåundersökning : dokumentation av ett dataregister för välfärdsforskning. Stockholm : Swedish Institute for Social Research. ISBN: 91-7604-005-4. • Jonsson, Jan O. and Colin Mills (eds.): Cradle to Grave. Life-Course Change in Modern Sweden. London: Routledge (special chapter on LNU-data in English) • Bygren, Magnus, Michael Gähler, Magnus Nermo (eds 2004.), Familj och arbete – Vardagsliv i förändring. Stockholm: SNS. • Jonsson, Jan O. and Viveca Östberg, with Marie Evertsson and Sara Brolin Låftman. 2001: Barns och ungdomars välfärd. SOU 2001:55. Stockholm: Fritzes. • Jonsson, Jan O. and Viveca Östberg. (2010): “Studying Young People’s Level of Living: The Swedish Child-LNU.” Child Indicators Research 3:47-64 If you publish something on this study, please contact snd@snd.gu.se with the citation.


Linkage


ISCED used.


Good options of linking through personal identification number-ID. The division of level of living into different components, inspired by the work within the UN, resulted in the following list of components included in the Swedish Level of Living Surveys: Health and access to care; Employment and working conditions; Economic resources; Educational resources; Family and social integration; Housing and neighbourhood facilities; Security of life and property; Recreation and culture; Political resources.

Linkage


ISCED used.


Good options of linking through personal identification number-ID. The division of level of living into different components, inspired by the work within the UN, resulted in the following list of components included in the Swedish Level of Living Surveys: Health and access to care; Employment and working conditions; Economic resources; Educational resources; Family and social integration; Housing and neighbourhood facilities; Security of life and property; Recreation and culture; Political resources.


Data quality


No major entry errors.


The first survey was based on a 0.0001 random sample of the Swedish population aged 15 to 75 years of age. The 1968 survey was to be repeated in 1974, and the decision was made to stick to the original sample but also include new cohorts of young people and immigrants arriving to Sweden in between the survey periods. Dropped from the sample was those above 75 years of age and those who had either emigrated or died. In 1981 the third Level of Living Survey was conducted with the same sample design. The 1991 survey was conducted with basically the same design, except for the fact that the youngest age bracket now became 18 instead of 15.


Code book and questionnaire available in English. http://snd.gu.se/en/catalogue/study/389
High level of consistency.

Data quality


No major entry errors.


The first survey was based on a 0.0001 random sample of the Swedish population aged 15 to 75 years of age. The 1968 survey was to be repeated in 1974, and the decision was made to stick to the original sample but also include new cohorts of young people and immigrants arriving to Sweden in between the survey periods. Dropped from the sample was those above 75 years of age and those who had either emigrated or died. In 1981 the third Level of Living Survey was conducted with the same sample design. The 1991 survey was conducted with basically the same design, except for the fact that the youngest age bracket now became 18 instead of 15.


Code book and questionnaire available in English. http://snd.gu.se/en/catalogue/study/389
High level of consistency.


Applicability


Strengths Data for the sixth Level of Living Survey is currently being collected and provides good opportunities to analyze changes in work conditions, social structure and health for various groups. LNU has two important subsets: one for children and youth, which makes it possible to study intergeneration aspects, another for immigrants, which provides good opportunities to compare welfare development for Swedish born and foreign born citizens. The purpose with the new data collection is to provide data for studies of how individuals’ living conditions look today as well as how they have evolved during the first decade of the 21st century. How have working conditions evolved over time? What are the long-term consequences of a recession and what groups are affected? Does income increase to the same extent for both women and men as they move into higher education? How do partners divide their income between them? Why do couples divorce and how are children affected? These are examples of questions researchers will be able to answer with data from the Level of Living Survey 2010. To sum up; LNU also manage to follow development in Sweden in a comparative sense with developments in other countries. With LNU, one can follow the health of the aging process, also longitudinally within individuals and also over time,(the sample is constantly updated with the sample with young and immigrants). The restriction is then that we release our interview subjects at the age of 75, then moving on to SWEOLD. A major point is to see LNU and SWEOLD complementary in terms of health trends. (As SWEOLD is an older study, it is of course more information about health, but also LNU has an extensive section on about 70 different symptoms, so it is an unusually informative set of health variables to be a multipurpose study. Not all dataset in the Swedish compilation have a good coverage of health variables, most register data as e.g. mortality alone) Weaknesses LNU has few questions on attitudes and personal values.

Applicability


Strengths Data for the sixth Level of Living Survey is currently being collected and provides good opportunities to analyze changes in work conditions, social structure and health for various groups. LNU has two important subsets: one for children and youth, which makes it possible to study intergeneration aspects, another for immigrants, which provides good opportunities to compare welfare development for Swedish born and foreign born citizens. The purpose with the new data collection is to provide data for studies of how individuals’ living conditions look today as well as how they have evolved during the first decade of the 21st century. How have working conditions evolved over time? What are the long-term consequences of a recession and what groups are affected? Does income increase to the same extent for both women and men as they move into higher education? How do partners divide their income between them? Why do couples divorce and how are children affected? These are examples of questions researchers will be able to answer with data from the Level of Living Survey 2010. To sum up; LNU also manage to follow development in Sweden in a comparative sense with developments in other countries. With LNU, one can follow the health of the aging process, also longitudinally within individuals and also over time,(the sample is constantly updated with the sample with young and immigrants). The restriction is then that we release our interview subjects at the age of 75, then moving on to SWEOLD. A major point is to see LNU and SWEOLD complementary in terms of health trends. (As SWEOLD is an older study, it is of course more information about health, but also LNU has an extensive section on about 70 different symptoms, so it is an unusually informative set of health variables to be a multipurpose study. Not all dataset in the Swedish compilation have a good coverage of health variables, most register data as e.g. mortality alone) Weaknesses LNU has few questions on attitudes and personal values.


  • The information about this dataset was compiled by the author:
  • Kenneth Abrahamsson
  • (see Partners)