Joint Programming Initiative

More Years, Better Lives

The Potential and Challenges of Demographic Change

Longitudinal Individual Data Base (LINDA)
Longitudinal individdatabas (LINDA)

Topic
Social Systems and Welfare
Work and Productivity
Relevance for this Topic
Country Sweden
URL
More Topics

Governance

Contact information

Daniel Kruse / Department for Population/Welfare Statistics
Statistics Sweden - Avdelningen för befolkning och välfärds¬statistik
Ekonomisk välfärd
701 89 Örebro
Sweden
Phone: 0046-19-176594
Fax: 0046-19-17 69 22
Email: inkomststat(at)scb.se
Url: http://www.scb.se/Pages/Product____34441.aspx
http://www.scb.se/LE1900

Timeliness, transparency

Usually one year and 2 months, but LINDA has no more new publication of tables.

Type of data


Registry

Type of Study

Cohort study

Data gathering method

Registries

Type of data


Registry

Type of Study

Cohort study

Data gathering method

Registries


Access to data


The registry is the primary source. On a contract basis, scientists can, after initial judgment, gain access to anonymised, primary material for their own research. Statistics Sweden can also perform special processing on a contract basis. In general, there are certain legal and other constraints for international access to primary data. The registry is distributed through the MONA system (Micro Data On line access) to users. The MONA system aims to increase access to microdata while security and privacy in the management are strengthened. With MONA, users gain access to databases and can make derivative works of them online. Physically, the databases are stored at SCB.

Conditions of access


For Swedish researchers: Access to the data will be granted for all researchers through Statistics Sweden subject to the normal secrecy provisions. Statistics Sweden will charge researchers on a marginal cost basis. The data request must be in writing and contain a defined research project. Before the release of the database subscribed to a confidentiality agreement between the purchaser and the SCB. In LINDA there are sensitive variables. With sensitive variables meant variables revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, trade union membership and variables concerning health or sex life. In LINDA's case, it is mainly on variables regarding health (sickness, etc.) and variables related to union membership (those fees, etc.) and religious beliefs (church tax). To gain access to these sensitive variables required in addition to a standard confidentiality examination, although an ethics. Unlike privacy Testing involves ethical review is not at SCB. The researcher who contact the Ethics Review Board (EPN). There is also a version of the wind which sensitive variables is removed and then, no ethical made. A confidential review by SCB must always be done regardless sensitive variables or not. Variables related to birth, citizenship, birth month and nationality grouped under normal circumstances, but can be ungrouped. However, it then requires approval from the EPN and a good justification. For foreign researchers: The opportunities to disclose data over the Internet to other countries is limited. The Swedish legislation can not protect information provided to the other country. Under the Data Protection Act, it is in principle prohibited to third countries (countries outside the EU and EEA) transfer personal information about the country not have an adequate level of protection of personal data.. Data access within the European Union has to be discussed with SCB. Data use outside EU is very restricted.


Two weeks if there is no need to consider more complex data protection issues (usually between two and four weeks)


The MONA system provides secure access to micro data at Statistics Sweden from an Internet connection. Here data are processed and analyzed through a rich set of applications; see below for a list of included software. Aggregated results are automatically sent to a user’s designated mail account. Users can also store intermediate results on Statistics Sweden servers for future use.


Excel, SAS, SPSS, STATA and other forms; see http://www.scb.se/Grupp/Tjanster/MONA_produktblad_engelsk.pdf


Information in English is available at most data bases and registers at Statistics Sweden. The data base is in Swedish as well as lists of variables, but general information on LINDA and MONA is available in English.

Access to data


The registry is the primary source. On a contract basis, scientists can, after initial judgment, gain access to anonymised, primary material for their own research. Statistics Sweden can also perform special processing on a contract basis. In general, there are certain legal and other constraints for international access to primary data. The registry is distributed through the MONA system (Micro Data On line access) to users. The MONA system aims to increase access to microdata while security and privacy in the management are strengthened. With MONA, users gain access to databases and can make derivative works of them online. Physically, the databases are stored at SCB.

Conditions of access


For Swedish researchers: Access to the data will be granted for all researchers through Statistics Sweden subject to the normal secrecy provisions. Statistics Sweden will charge researchers on a marginal cost basis. The data request must be in writing and contain a defined research project. Before the release of the database subscribed to a confidentiality agreement between the purchaser and the SCB. In LINDA there are sensitive variables. With sensitive variables meant variables revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, trade union membership and variables concerning health or sex life. In LINDA's case, it is mainly on variables regarding health (sickness, etc.) and variables related to union membership (those fees, etc.) and religious beliefs (church tax). To gain access to these sensitive variables required in addition to a standard confidentiality examination, although an ethics. Unlike privacy Testing involves ethical review is not at SCB. The researcher who contact the Ethics Review Board (EPN). There is also a version of the wind which sensitive variables is removed and then, no ethical made. A confidential review by SCB must always be done regardless sensitive variables or not. Variables related to birth, citizenship, birth month and nationality grouped under normal circumstances, but can be ungrouped. However, it then requires approval from the EPN and a good justification. For foreign researchers: The opportunities to disclose data over the Internet to other countries is limited. The Swedish legislation can not protect information provided to the other country. Under the Data Protection Act, it is in principle prohibited to third countries (countries outside the EU and EEA) transfer personal information about the country not have an adequate level of protection of personal data.. Data access within the European Union has to be discussed with SCB. Data use outside EU is very restricted.


Two weeks if there is no need to consider more complex data protection issues (usually between two and four weeks)


The MONA system provides secure access to micro data at Statistics Sweden from an Internet connection. Here data are processed and analyzed through a rich set of applications; see below for a list of included software. Aggregated results are automatically sent to a user’s designated mail account. Users can also store intermediate results on Statistics Sweden servers for future use.


Excel, SAS, SPSS, STATA and other forms; see http://www.scb.se/Grupp/Tjanster/MONA_produktblad_engelsk.pdf


Information in English is available at most data bases and registers at Statistics Sweden. The data base is in Swedish as well as lists of variables, but general information on LINDA and MONA is available in English.


Coverage


The core of the data is the income registers (Inkomst- och taxeringsstatistiken) - available annually from 1968 - and population census data (Folk- och Bostadsräkningen) - available every fifth year from 1960 to 1990. All variables in these registers are included in the database. LINDA contains information on 300,000 individuals annually. For each year, information on all family members of the sampled individuals is added to the dataset. Family members are only included in the sample as long as they stay in the family. The definition of a "family" differs between the census and income registers, so for census years both definitions of family are available.


1960


No stratification


LINDA is a register-based longitudinal dataset. It consists of a large panel of individuals, and their household members, which is representative for the population from 1960 and onwards. New information is added annually to the dataset.


Representative for total population


Information on family members


The data should be applicable in a wide range of areas, including economics, demography, sociology, economic geography and public policy analysis. The potential of the database is enhanced by the fact that the master database is stored at Statistics Sweden; thus, researchers can use LINDA as a sampling frame and add on information from other registers to fit their specific purposes. This is certainly cost effective since the expenses associated with constructing a representative sample and obtaining vital background variables have already been incurred. Moreover, matching the data with interesting regional characteristics is an easy task because of the very detailed information on place of residence. Within the field of economics, the data are well-suited for questions regarding various aspects of individual mobility, unemployment duration, the economic consequences of immigration, housing economics, income distribution, the effects of the welfare state, and public policy analysis in general.


http://www.scb.se/Pages/Product____34441.aspx
List of studies using Linda (selection) Arslanogullari, S (2000), Social Assistance in Sweden 1990-1995. Working Paper 2000:2, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/00wp2.pdf
. Edin, P-A and P Fredriksson (2000), LINDA - Longitudinal INdividual DAta for Sweden,. Working Paper 2000:19, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/2000wp19.pdf
. Edin, P-A, P Fredriksson, and P Lundborg (2000), Trade, Earnings, and Mobility - Swedish Evidence, Working Paper 2000:24, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/2000wp24.pdf
. Edin, P-A, R J. LaLonde and O Åslund (2000), Emigration of Immigrants and Measures of Immigrant Assimilation: Evidence from Sweden, Swedish Economic Policy Review 7, 163-204. Åslund, O (2000), Immigrant Settlement Policies and Subsequent Migration, Working Paper 2000:23, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/2000wp23.pdf
. Carling, K, B Holmlund and A. Vejsiu (2001). Do Benefit Cuts Boost Job Findings? Swedish Evidence from the 1990s, Economic Journal 111, 766-790. Dahlberg, M and P Fredriksson (2001), Migration and Local Public Services, Working Paper 2001:12, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/2001wp12.pdf
. Edin P-A and O Åslund (2001), Invandrare på 1990-talets arbetsmarknad, i Bergmark Å (red.) Ofärd i Välfärden, SOU 2001:54, 101-142. Åslund, O, (2001) Now and forever? Initial and subsequent location choices of immigrants, Working Paper 2001:11, Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation, Uppsala. Available at: http://www.ifau.se/swe/pdf2001/wp01-11.pdf
. Edin, P-A, P Fredriksson and O Åslund (2002), Settlement Policies and the Economic Success of Immigrants, manuscript, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. (Forthcoming Journal of Population Economics) Fredriksson, P and C Runeson (2002) Follow-up of EU's recommendations on the tax and benefit systems, Report 2002:5, Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation, Uppsala. Available at: http://www.ifau.se/swe/pdf2002/r02-05.pdf
. Larsson, L (2002), Sick of Being Unemployed? Interactions Between Unemployment and Sickness Insurance in Sweden. Working Paper 2002:5, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/wp2002_5.pdf
. Edin, P-A, P Fredriksson and O Åslund (2003), Ethnic Enclaves and the Economic Success of Immigrants – Evidence from a Natural Experiment, forthcoming Quarterly Journal of Economics 118.

Coverage


The core of the data is the income registers (Inkomst- och taxeringsstatistiken) - available annually from 1968 - and population census data (Folk- och Bostadsräkningen) - available every fifth year from 1960 to 1990. All variables in these registers are included in the database. LINDA contains information on 300,000 individuals annually. For each year, information on all family members of the sampled individuals is added to the data set. Family members are only included in the sample as long as they stay in the family. The definition of a "family" differs between the census and income registers, so for census years both definitions of family are available.


1960


No stratification


LINDA is a register-based longitudinal data set. It consists of a large panel of individuals, and their household members, which is representative for the population from 1960 and onwards. New information is added annually to the dataset.


Representative for total population


Information on family members


The data should be applicable in a wide range of areas, including economics, demography, sociology, economic geography and public policy analysis. The potential of the database is enhanced by the fact that the master database is stored at Statistics Sweden; thus, researchers can use LINDA as a sampling frame and add on information from other registers to fit their specific purposes. This is certainly cost effective since the expenses associated with constructing a representative sample and obtaining vital background variables have already been incurred. Moreover, matching the data with interesting regional characteristics is an easy task because of the very detailed information on place of residence. Within the field of economics, the data are well-suited for questions regarding various aspects of individual mobility, unemployment duration, the economic consequences of immigration, housing economics, income distribution, the effects of the welfare state, and public policy analysis in general.


http://www.scb.se/Pages/Product____34441.aspx
List of studies using Linda (selection) Arslanogullari, S (2000), Social Assistance in Sweden 1990-1995. Working Paper 2000:2, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/00wp2.pdf
. Edin, P-A and P Fredriksson (2000), LINDA - Longitudinal INdividual DAta for Sweden,. Working Paper 2000:19, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/2000wp19.pdf
. Edin, P-A, P Fredriksson, and P Lundborg (2000), Trade, Earnings, and Mobility - Swedish Evidence, Working Paper 2000:24, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/2000wp24.pdf
. Edin, P-A, R J. LaLonde and O Åslund (2000), Emigration of Immigrants and Measures of Immigrant Assimilation: Evidence from Sweden, Swedish Economic Policy Review 7, 163-204. Åslund, O (2000), Immigrant Settlement Policies and Subsequent Migration, Working Paper 2000:23, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/2000wp23.pdf
. Carling, K, B Holmlund and A. Vejsiu (2001). Do Benefit Cuts Boost Job Findings? Swedish Evidence from the 1990s, Economic Journal 111, 766-790. Dahlberg, M and P Fredriksson (2001), Migration and Local Public Services, Working Paper 2001:12, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/2001wp12.pdf
. Edin P-A and O Åslund (2001), Invandrare på 1990-talets arbetsmarknad, i Bergmark Å (red.) Ofärd i Välfärden, SOU 2001:54, 101-142. Åslund, O, (2001) Now and forever? Initial and subsequent location choices of immigrants, Working Paper 2001:11, Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation, Uppsala. Available at: http://www.ifau.se/swe/pdf2001/wp01-11.pdf
. Edin, P-A, P Fredriksson and O Åslund (2002), Settlement Policies and the Economic Success of Immigrants, manuscript, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. (Forthcoming Journal of Population Economics) Fredriksson, P and C Runeson (2002) Follow-up of EU's recommendations on the tax and benefit systems, Report 2002:5, Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation, Uppsala. Available at: http://www.ifau.se/swe/pdf2002/r02-05.pdf
. Larsson, L (2002), Sick of Being Unemployed? Interactions Between Unemployment and Sickness Insurance in Sweden. Working Paper 2002:5, Department of Economics, Uppsala University. Available at: http://www.nek.uu.se/Pdf/wp2002_5.pdf
. Edin, P-A, P Fredriksson and O Åslund (2003), Ethnic Enclaves and the Economic Success of Immigrants – Evidence from a Natural Experiment, forthcoming Quarterly Journal of Economics 118.


Linkage


The Swedish Standard Classification of Occupations 1996 (SSYK 96) is a national adaptation of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88) published in 1990 by the International Labour Office, Geneva. Also International Standard Classifi¬cation of Education (ISCED 97).


The database is intended to be a general research base - a complement to surveys such as LNU (The Level of Livings Survey) and HUS (The Household Market and Non-market Activities). The core registers consist of the income registers and population censuses. Attached to LINDA is a non-overlapping sample of immigrants created in the same fashion as the general sample. This immigrant sample consists of 20 percent of all individuals born abroad along with information on their families.

Linkage


The Swedish Standard Classification of Occupations 1996 (SSYK 96) is a national adaptation of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88) published in 1990 by the International Labour Office, Geneva. Also International Standard Classifi¬cation of Education (ISCED 97).


The database is intended to be a general research base - a complement to surveys such as LNU (The Level of Livings Survey) and HUS (The Household Market and Non-market Activities). The core registers consist of the income registers and population censuses. Attached to LINDA is a non-overlapping sample of immigrants created in the same fashion as the general sample. This immigrant sample consists of 20 percent of all individuals born abroad along with information on their families.


Data quality


LINDA is based on data from the Income Register. Since the income registry based on administrative records and is based on administrative gets a very high precision in their amount calculations. Variable quality of family composition is slightly worse due to cohabiting families (not married) but the children are regarded as two single households. The number of families are therefore somewhat higher than the actual number. In this context it should be emphasized that LINDA is essentially a longitudinal individual database. The statistics are based on data reported in the tax return, control data, etc. This means that income and wealth as withheld tax left out. The size of this hidden sector of the economy is relatively unknown, but likely to be considerable.


No significant break – more of a question of continuous development.


High level of consistency in terminology and categories. Variables, however, might changes name and connotations, which is important for scholars to be informed about.

Data quality


LINDA is based on data from the Income Register. Since the income registry based on administrative records and is based on administrative gets a very high precision in their amount calculations. Variable quality of family composition is slightly worse due to cohabiting families (not married) but the children are regarded as two single households. The number of families are therefore somewhat higher than the actual number. In this context it should be emphasized that LINDA is essentially a longitudinal individual database. The statistics are based on data reported in the tax return, control data, etc. This means that income and wealth as withheld tax left out. The size of this hidden sector of the economy is relatively unknown, but likely to be considerable


No significant break – more of a question of continuous development.


High level of consistency in terminology and categories. Variables, however, might changes name and connotations, which is important for scholars to be informed about.


Applicability


Strengths: Apart from being a panel which is representative for the population, the sampling frame ensures that the data are representative for each year: starting with a representative sample a particular year, we sample from the inflow to replace the outflow to obtain next year’s sample; thus, the data are also cross-sectionally representative. The database will be updated annually. Attached to LINDA is a non-overlapping sample of immigrants created in the same fashion as the general sample. This immigrant sample consists of 20 percent of all individuals born abroad along with information on their families. A general feature of the data is that information becomes richer over time. For the period 1960-1967, there is only census data for 1960 and 1965 along with yearly (rudimentary) information on income from Social Insurance Agency's pension register. From 1968 and onwards, there is yearly information on income and some background characteristics from Statistics Sweden’s income registers. As time passes, the income registers become more detailed, including more components of income (i.e. transfers) especially during the 1980’s. In the 1990’s, the database is expanded in a significant way since other register information - such as information on unemployment duration. LINDA provides researchers and public policy analysts with the means of asking new and interesting questions, particularly regarding the reasons for, and consequences of, change - broadly defined. Weaknesses Frame population for LINDA is the copy of the Tax civil registers stored in the Total Population Register (TPR). This means that persons who, under current regulations must be registered, but is not it constitutes under-coverage. Conversely, people who are registered although under current regulations should not be there is a cover. In particular, deficiencies in reporting of emigration resulting in too high or to low figures, these errors can be assumed to be negligible.

Applicability


Strengths: Apart from being a panel which is representative for the population, the sampling frame ensures that the data are representative for each year: starting with a representative sample a particular year, we sample from the inflow to replace the outflow to obtain next year’s sample; thus, the data are also cross-sectionally representative. The database will be updated annually. Attached to LINDA is a non-overlapping sample of immigrants created in the same fashion as the general sample. This immigrant sample consists of 20 percent of all individuals born abroad along with information on their families. A general feature of the data is that information becomes richer over time. For the period 1960-1967, there is only census data for 1960 and 1965 along with yearly (rudimentary) information on income from Social Insurance Agency's pension register. From 1968 and onwards, there is yearly information on income and some background characteristics from Statistics Sweden’s income registers. As time passes, the income registers become more detailed, including more components of income (i.e. transfers) especially during the 1980’s. In the 1990’s, the database is expanded in a significant way since other register information - such as information on unemployment duration. LINDA provides researchers and public policy analysts with the means of asking new and interesting questions, particularly regarding the reasons for, and consequences of, change - broadly defined. Weaknesses Frame population for LINDA is the copy of the Tax civil registers stored in the Total Population Register (TPR). This means that persons who, under current regulations must be registered, but is not it constitutes under-coverage. Conversely, people who are registered although under current regulations should not be there is a cover. In particular, deficiencies in reporting of emigration resulting in too high or to low figures, these errors can be assumed to be negligible.


  • The information about this dataset was compiled by the author:
  • Kenneth Abrahamsson
  • (see Partners)