Joint Programming Initiative

More Years, Better Lives

The Potential and Challenges of Demographic Change

Survey on Households and the Environment, 2008 (SHE)
Encuesta de Hogares y Medio Ambiente, 2008 (EHMA)

Housing, Urban Development and Mobility
Relevance for this Topic
Country Spain
More Topics


Contact information

Social Statistics and Analyses Directorate
Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spanish Statistical Office, INE)
Castellana 183
28071 Madrid
Phone: 91 583 91 00
Fax: 91 583 91 58
Email: infoine(at)

Timeliness, transparency

Data was collected from Sept. 30, 2008 to April 22, 2009. Data are available for users almost one year later.

Type of data


Type of Study

Cross-section, occasional

Data gathering method

Face-to-face interview (CAPI, PAPI)

Depending on regions, other methods (telephone, Internet or CAPI) were used.

Access to data

On site free access to defined tables and microdata files for scientific purpose and elaboration. Notes for general use and for media. - Free access in Spanish and English to tables ( - Anonymized microdata in Spanish and English (

Conditions of access

This survey was not in the INE operational plan, but INE carried it out in cooperation with the regional statistical offices. No fees in most cases with the exception of very specific demands.

1-2 weeks (depending on the application)

Aggregated and elaborated tables. Raw anonymised microdata.

ASCII zip file following a register design file (EXCEL format)

The website is in Spanish and English, but technical documents and record design files are available only in Spanish. Survey methodology is also available in English (


Data were collected from April to September 2008 with a sample size of 27,832 dwellings (26,689 effective dwellings and 24,571 individuals). It was a multi-stage, stratified survey of main dwellings and one resident, aged 17 or older, was interviewed.


Dwellings, households and individuals aged 17 and over

Census tracts based in the municipal size according to the Municipal Register (2008)

All of Spain and its regions

Population aged 17 and over

Data regarding regions are also representative

- Dwellings: Water (source of drinking water, saving devices, consumption habits) Energy (sources, heating, air conditioning, thermal insulation) Waste (separation, availability of containers, waste disposal sites) Equipment and use of housing in relation to the environment (big and small appliances, frequency of use) Noise and bad smell problems (intensity, causes, measures taken) Transport and mobility (household transportation modes, data on cars and use) Lifestyles and consumption patterns (habits regarding saving energy, waste and recycling, frequency) - Individuals: Consumption habits (water, transportation modes and frequency – public, private) Environment self-perception and activities fostering environmental consciousness Classification variables are: - Dwellings: regions, municipal size, household type and size, income - Household reference member: sex, age, nationality, educational level, economic activity - All individual interviewed: regions, municipal size, sex, age, country of birth, nationality, civil status, educational level, economic activity, occupational status

• Aisa, R., & Larramona, G. ”Household water saving: Evidence from Spain”. Water Resour. Res. 48 (2012) W12522. DOI:10.1029/2012WR012021. • Martínez-Espiñeira, R., & García-Valiñas, M.A. “Adopting versus adapting: adoption of water-saving technology versus water conservation habits in Spain”. International Journal of Water Resources Development (2012). • Mas, M., & Iztueta-Azkue, A. “Microdata perturbation preserving multivariate relations of target categorical variables in the Household Environmental Survey of EUSTAT”. Joint UNECE/Eurostat work session on statistical data confidentiality 2(4) (2009): 10. Available at:
• Teijeiro, C., & Angulo, C. “Elaboración de un indicador sintético de medio ambiente. Resultados derivados de la Encuesta de Hogares y Medio Ambiente 2008”. Documentos de Trabajo. Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) (2010). Available at:


Only some classification variables (economic activity, occupation) are harmonized to the Spanish standards


Data quality

Treatment of non-response and debugging rules were common following the statistical procedures of the Regional Statistical Offices and the INE. EHMA assessment report on non-response can be accessed in Spanish (

No changes in methodology or definitions as it is a unique survey

Same definitions as those existing in similar social surveys are used in EHS 2008 to ensure comparability between different sources in terms of the common characteristics.


The regional statistical offices and the National Statistics Institute (INE) started collaborating to implement in Spain, in 2006, the basis for the European Household Survey (EHS). As no decision was made at the European level, INE planned to carry out this EHS 2008 in Spain, adapting it to the Eurostat methodological guidelines and contents. The two main goals were to search for the habits, consumption patterns and attitudes of households in relation to the environment and to study the household equipment and the uses regarding some environmental aspects (energy saving, reduction of energy consumption, waste separation, etc.) in order to formulate environmental policies. Debugging, coding and recording procedures were homogenized in all regions according to the INE common rules in order to achieve maximum comparability. Questionnaires were translated into specific regional language for the regions with two co-official languages. Strengths: This was the first Spanish initiative in surveying environmental conditions.

  • The information about this dataset was compiled by the author:
  • Vicente Rodríguez
  • (see Partners)